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Implantology as we know it has not always been this way ...

The need for dental implants that today affects millions of people, and which currently involves innovative techniques and advanced treatments, has always existed.
From ancient Civilizations to the present day, 

get to know the History of Implantology.

Implantology Origin

Origin

During the time of the Phoenicians and Chinese, Egyptian and Mayan, some of the first dental implants of the world were created. For reasons of masticatory or aesthetic necessity, there is evidence that, through material such as ceramics, metal, ivory, shells and bones, these civilisations found the first solutions for tooth loss.
 
In Egypt the noblest of them replaced, after death, lost teeth with human teeth of others or animals, or used gold alloys as the Phoenicians did. The latter also used ivory as a resource. Chinese ancestors used bamboo cuttings as replacements for missing teeth. Yet, the Mayan civilisation, it is believed, was the first civilisation to create an artificial tooth and put it into a living patient. In South America, archaeologists have found the jaw of a woman, dating back to 600 BC, with dental implants made out of shells and indicating that the procedure was made while she was still alive.

First Steps

1687

Charles Allen began to make the first known surgical advances with the dental reimplantation of heterologous teeth. Until 1800, this form of dental rehabilitation was the most frequent as a form of tooth replacement. However, it proved to be conducive to infections and diseases such as tuberculosis or syphilis and was not continued.

1764

During the eighteenth century in Europe, Dr. John Hunter idealised that he would be able to transplant teeth, from one person to another. During that time, it became common to extract teeth from the poorest to place them afterwards on the richest. The technique had a very low success rate, due to the non-sterilisation of the surgical instruments and the weak immune response of the tooth receptors.
The nineteenth century, brought several metals as materials more used in dental implant attempts.

1806

Giuseppangelo Fonzi invented the mineral tooth. An artificial tooth that could be implanted directly at the extraction site using platinum hooks.

1809

Dr. Maggiolo, a French doctor, developed the most modern technique up to the date of implantology. He designed a gold alloy implant that later, upon healing the extraction site, would support a porcelain crown. Again, the procedure failed due to the inflammation suffered by the patient.  

1840

Chapin A. Harris created an implant that would support a porcelain crown coated with lead. Lead is a material that had the strength to withstand masticatory ability. Years later, several doctors followed the tendency, such as Pajime and Bonwi, Berry and Edmunds who produced implants to replace single teeth or a complete arcade from other metal alloys such as silver and platinum. The high toxicity of these metals and the lack of compatibility with organic tissue once again caused the procedure to fail.

20th Century: New Developments

1913

Doctors were struggling with the problem of creating a dental implant that would melt to the bone and thus make it safer and more functional. Dr. EJ Greenfield developed the first implant that later evolved into the one we use today. He created an iridium-platinum cylinder welded with gold to recreate the artificial root of the missing tooth.

1939

The two brothers, Dr. Alvin Strock and Moses Strock, inspired by how surgeons placed implants in hip surgeries, developed bolts composed of a biocompatible chromium-cobalt-molybdenum alloy nicknamed alloy Vitallium. However, implants made with this alloy had a rapid loss of tension, not facilitating its maintenance in the oral cavity. These two doctors are told to be first that made a bone implant.

1942

Dr. Formiggini created the endosseous implants by means of an iodine gauze retained in the dental alveolus. The created implant had a helical shape with spirals so the bone would fuse with the metal.  This innovative design is one of the pioneers of current dental implant design. In order to improve this prototype and to make it more effective, the contributions of Dr. Raphael Chercheve, Gustav Dahl, Dr. Aaron Gershkoff, Dr. Norman Goldberg, Lew, Bausch, and Berman are to be mentioned.

Modern Implantology

1952

Per-Ingvar Bränemark, Swedish orthopedist at the University of Gothenburg, was ranked as the father of Modern Implantology. During an investigation where he studied the healing and regeneration of bones, he made a discovery. Upon investigating the blood microcirculation in the bone marrow of animals, he tried to remove a titanium cylinder from the femur of a rabbit, yet without success. He verified that the bone had grown around the implant and fused with this without any kind of rejection. After several decades of experiments and studies, a metal compatible with the bone had finally been discovered. This new evidence was the start for the knowledge of osseointegration as we know it today and the first concept of Osseointegration had arisen.

1965

13 years after the discovery of Bränemark, the first titanium dental implant was placed in a person, the Swedish Gösta Larsson.

 1982

At the Dental Clinic conference in Toronto, after Bränemark presented its research results with titanium, the standards for the large-scale use of the titanium component were established as an artificial substitute for the root of a damaged or lost tooth. Since then, and in the following years, several advances have been made in dental implants that influence the present day: first zygomatic implants (1988), industrial process of creation of ceramic crowns (1989), All-on-4 treatment (1998) and more...

Present 

Present

The invention of Per-Ingvar Bränemark is still today the basis of dental implants that most people are familiar with. An aluminium alloy screw is placed on the jaw in place of the missing tooth, and once the site has healed, the crown is positioned at the top.

Implantology is proof that evolution is beneficial!

Much time passed from the earliest solutions, from the Maya's implants made of shaped or the hammered copper into the jaws of the Egyptians. Mankind, as evolutionary as that is, has never stopped looking for new ways to respond to dental needs. Nowadays, allied to emerging technology, there is still a wide spectrum to explore inside the Implantology.

This is the way!

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